Minggu, 21 Juni 2009

passive voice


Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It's not important or notknown, however who or what is ferforming the action

Example : My bike was stolen

In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it.

S + Tobe + Past Participle

A letter was written

S + Tobe + V3

when rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following :

  1. the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  2. the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  3. the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped).

Examples of Passive Level : lower intermediate





Simple Present

Active : Rita

Passive : A letter


is written

a letter

by Rita

Simple Past

Active : Rita

Passive : A letter


was written

a letter

by Rita

Present Perfect

Active : Rita

Passive : A letter

has written

has been written

a letter

by Rita

Future I

Active : Rita

Passive : A letter

will write

will be written

a letter

by Rita


Active : Rita

Passive : A letter

can write

can be written

a letter

by Rita

Example of Passive Level : upper intermediate





Present Progressive

Active : Rita

Passive : A letter

is writing

is being written

a letter

by Rita

Past Progressive

Active : Rita

Passive : A letter

was writing

was being written

a letter

by Rita

Past Present

Active : Rita

Passive : A letter

had written

had been written

a letter

by Rita

Future II

Active : Rita

Passive : A letter

will have written

will have been written

a letter

by Rita

Conditional I

Active : Rita

Passive : A letter

would write

would be written

a letter

by Rita

Conditional II

Active : Rita

Passive : A letter

would have written

would have been written

a letter

by Rita

Passive Sentences with Two Objects

Level : intermediate

Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice mean that one of the two objects become the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.



Object 1

Object 2

Active : Rita


a letter

to me

Passive : A letter

was written

to me

by Rita

Passive : I

was written

a letter

by Rita


Finite Verb

A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tenses according to the ruler and categories of languages in which it occurs.

· Finite verb can form “Indenpendent Clause” which constand by their own as complete sentences

· An Independent clause is a complete sentences it contain the main subject and verb of asentences

· In English only verb in contain mob the finite.These includes.

Indicate mood : expressing state of appairs in indicative mood finite verb is must used verb.

Example : Elis is going to shop

Imperative mood , giving a command

example : Help me please !!!

Don't do that !!!

Verb – Finite / Non Finite

Finite Verb

A finite verb (sometimes called main verbs) is a verb that has a subject, this means that it can be the main verb in a sentence. It shows tense (past / present etc) or number (singular / plural)

For example :

I lived in Germany. (I is the subject-lived describes what the subject did-lived is a finite verb).

Non-Finite Verbs

A non-finite verb has no subject, tense or number. The only non-finite verb forms are the infinite (indicated by to), the gerund or the participle.

For example :

I lived in Germany to improve my German.(To improve is in the infinite form-improve is non-finite).



News item is to inform readers, listeners, or viewers about event of the day which are considered news worthy or important.

The structure of the text consists of three parts :

1. Newsworthy event : recounts the events in summary form.

2. Background events : elaborate what happened, to whom, and in what circumstances

3. Source : comments by participants in whitnesses to, and authorities expert on the event.

Significant Gammar Features :

· Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline.

· Generally using simple present tense

· Use of material processer totell the event

· Focus on circumtanses

- Using action verbs, e,g ; were, run, go, kill

- Using saying verbs, e, g ; say, tell

- Use of projecting verbal processes in sources stages


Simple Present Tense

To tell a work, event or something happen today

Functions :

1. To tell habitual action → I go to school every day

2. To tell general truth → The world is round

3. To tell self identity → He is student

Nominal :

Example :

(+) S + Tobe (am,is,are) + ….

( -) S + Tobe + not + ……

(?) Tobe + S + ….?

( -) Tobe + S + not + ….?

(+) He is diligent student

(- ) He is not diligent student

(?) Is he diligent student ?

(- ) Is he not diligent student ?

Verbal :

Example :

(+) S + VI + ….

( -) S + do/does + not + VI + ……

(?) Do/does + S + VI + ….?

(?) Do/does + S + not + VI + ….?

(+) She does her homework

(- ) She does not do her homework

(?) Does she do her homework?

(?) Does she not do her homework?

Time signal : - always - normally - now day

- every day - usually - every monday


Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct Speech

Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech)

Here what a person says appears within quotation marks (“…”) and should be word for word.

Indirect Speech

Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what person said and it doesn't have to be word for word. When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a tie in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too.

For example :

Direct speech

Indirect speech

“I'm going to the cinema”, he said

He said he was going to the cinema


Modals In The Past Form

Adalah kata Bantu pengandaian dalam bentuk lampau

Modal in past are :

  • Could
  • Should
  • Would
  • Might

Chould + Verb base

We can use this expression :

To offer suggestion or possibilities

Example : Rosa : I am having trouble with math

Vira : Why don't you ask putrid? Prehaps She could help you

Should + Verb base

Example : Ido : Wa, you should go to library now

Iwa : OK !

Would + Verb base

Use would for an action that was repeated regulary in the past

Example : Oca : What did you usually do for holiday?

Vita : I would visit uncle in the village, but now not anymore.

Would + Mind + V_ing

Use would to express polite request

Example : Mr. Jhon : Would you mind posting the letter?

Pujja : No, not at all

Might + Verb base

Use mioght to tell posibilities

Example : Ita : Why is Rio talking the bus to get hemo?

Aje : He might get a flat fire


Narrative Text

Narrative Text is a text that purpose to amuse or to entertain the reader or the listener and deal with actual or vicanous experience in different ways to the reader or listener.

Narative Text usually like folk tales, fable, legend, fairy tale, etc.

The General Structure of narrative text are

Ω Orientation

Sets the scene and introduces the participans

Ω Complication

The problem happened in the story

Ω Resolution

The crisis is resolved, for better or worse

Ω Re-orientation

The ending of the story

Ω Evaluation

A stepping back to evaluate the story or the moral message of the story

The narrative text uses of temporal conjuction

Example ; once upon a time, before, after, etc.

The narrative text uses the simple past tense

Example narrative text are :

Fable : mousedeer, crocodile, etc

Legend : Sangkuriang, Malinkundang, etc

Fairy tale : Cinderella, Snow White, Pinocchio, etc


Descriptive text is kind of text that discribe about something detaily

The structure of descriptive text

→ Indetification : Identifies phenomenon to be described

→ Discription : Describes parts, qualities and ataracteristic

Description cinsist of :

→ Description of Purpose ( deskripsi bentuk dan tujuan )

→ Description of Features ( deskripsi tentang bentuk dan ciri-ciri )

→ Description of Physical ( deskripsi bentuk fisik )

Description uses the simple present tense but sometime

is uses the simple past tense when the person, thing, or

place that talked about no longer exists.

Example :

The mango tree in our school

There are some trees in our school. Among them, there is a mango tree. The tree is front of our classroom.


The mango tree is very old. Maybe, it is the oldest tree at the school. The trunk is very big. It takes two children with arms outstretched to completely circle it. Surprisingly, it still bears a lot of fruit. No wonder, when mango season comes, my friend and I get excited. We all like to come to school really early so we can pick all the good ones. Before going home, we can not help taking a look at mouth watering sight on the tree, hoping that we might climb it again the next day.